Skip to main content

Full text of "Report on the island of Guam"

See other formats




Redwood Library 










JUNE, 1900, 


Government Printing Office. 









Brig. General Joseph Wheeler, U. S. Army. 

JUNE, 1900. 



OCT 2* 1925P 


Adjutant-General's Office. 

Document No. 123. 





Orders sending General Wheeler to Guam 5 

Get (graphical features and population of.Guam ■ 8, 19, 24 

Trees and plants 9 

Birds 12 

Mammals 14 

Reptiles 14 

Insects 14 

Fishes ' 14 

Copra industry 14 

Wild yam 15 

Roads 15 

Character of buildings in towns 16 

The people, their character 16 

The Caroline islanders 17 

Donation of Maria of Austria 18 

Prehistoric monuments . 20 

Climate 21 

Currents 22 

Unsurveyed shoals 25 

Umata 26 

Harbor San Luis D' Apra 28 

Smallpox 20 

Sumaye 30 

Agana, the capital 31 

South and west coast 32 

North coast 33 

East coast 33 

Pago Harbor 33 

Port Tarafafo 33 

Hie Bay 33 

Ynarajan 34 

Agafayan Bay 33 

Administration 35 

Orders by Governor Leary 35 

Proclamations 36 

Printed copies of proclamations and orders 38 to 49 

Breakwater 50 



On Board U. S. Transport Warren, 

February 12, 1900. 
To the President, Commander in Chief, 

(Through the Adjutant-General U. S. Army), 

Washington, D. C 
Sir: I have the honor to respectfully submit the following 

At 4 o'clock in the afternoon of January 14 I received the 
following telegram: 

Bautista, Luzon, P. L, 

January U, 1900— 2.23 p. m. 
General Wheeler, Panique: 

The department commander directs that you proceed to Manila as 
quickly as possible and report to him in person. Please acknowledge 

MacArthur, Major- General. 

Panique is nearly 90 miles from Manila. In compliance 
with the above order, I took the first train to Manila. I left 
Panique on the morning of the 15th, reached Manila about 
dark, and immediately reported to General Otis, who told me 
that he had orders for me to proceed to Guam, and from 
thence to San Francisco, after complying with instructions 
regarding the island of Guam. He informed me that he 
expected a steamer to sail for Guam in about two days. 

On January 17 I received the following order: 


Special Orders, ) Hdqrs. Department of the Pacific, 

and Eighth Army Corps, 

No - 16 - > Manila, P. I., January 16, 1900. 

5. In obedience to War Department instructions of the 13th instant, 
Brig. Gen. Joseph Wheeler, United States Volunteers, is relieved from 
duty with the department and corps, and will proceed by way of the 
island of Guam to San Francisco, Cal., where upon arrival he will report 
to the Adjutant-General of the Army for orders. Under these conveyed 
instructions, General Wheeler is hereby directed upon reaching; Guam to 
delay a sufficient time to investigate conditions existing there, the admin- 



ietration of the United States officer in charge, the work accomplished and 

in contemplation, and the public advantages the island affords by reason 

of location and physical features. In the interesl of necessary legislation 

and Executive action, General Wheeler will fully report the result of this 

directed investigation to the proper authority as Boon as practicable. The 

travel enjoined is necessary for the public Bervice. 

r.\ command of Major-General < )tis: 

Thomas H. Barry, 

Assistant Adjutant- General. 

I was ready to embark at any moment after reaching 
Manila, but the steamer upon which I was directed to sail did 
no t leave until the afternoon of January 2-i, and she was com- 
pelled to go by way of Hongkong to get sufficient coal for the 

I arrived at Guam on the morning of Tuesday, February 6, 
reaching the shore about 1.30 in the afternoon. Proceeding 
to the palace at Auana. a distance of about 5 miles from Piti, 
the landing place, f called upon and presented my orders to 
( rovernor Leary. I had previously forwarded to him a letter 
from Admiral Watson, which the Admiral had intrusted to 
me, at the same time giving me a copy, which is as follows: 

United States Naval Force on Asiatic Station, 

Flagship Brooklyn, 
Cavite, P. I., January 19, 1900. 
Sir: 1. The military governor of the Philippines, Major-General Otis, 
under instructions from the War Department, has directed Brig. Gen. 
Joseph Wheeler, United States Volunteers, to visit Guam and delay a suf- 
ficient time to investigate conditions existing there, the administration of 
the United States officers in charge, the work accomplished and in con- 
templation, and the public advantages the island affords by reason of loca- 
tion and physical features. 

2. This investigation is to be made in the interest of necessary legisla- 
tion and Executive action. 

:;. The telegram authorizing this detail is signed "Corbin," and men- 
tions that •• The President would be glad to have Joseph Wheeler perform 
this duty." 

I. You are hereby directed to receive General Wheeler with all the con- 
sideration due his rank, distinguished services, and high character, and 
will give him unofficially all possible information and facilities for the per- 
formance of his mission. You must, however, decline to recognize his 
instructions as official. 
Very respectfully, 

J. C. Watson, 
Rear-Admiral, U. S. Navy, Commander in chief , 

United States Naval Force on Asiatic Station. 
Capt. R. P. Leary, C. s. N. } 

Commanding First Division, Asiatic Fleet, Guam. 


Two days after receiving the above letter I had received 
from the office of the military governor in the Philippines 
the following: 

Office of the United States Military Governor 

in the Philippine Islands, 
Manila, P. L, January 22, 1900. 
To Brig. Gen. Joseph Wheeler, U. S. V., 

Manila, P. I. 
General: The following is received at this office and is furnished you 
tor your information: 

" Flagship Brooklyn," Cavite, P. I., January 21, 1900. 
"Sir: Referring to my letter of January 20, relating to the visit of Gen- 
eral Wheeler to Guam, I have the honor to inform you that the Navy 
Department has telegraphed to the following effect: 

" 'By order of the President, Gen. Joseph Wheeler proceeds to Guam. 
Captain Leary is to be directed to recognize General Wheeler's visit as 
official, but General Wheeler's authority is only to report upon the con- 
dition of things at that place.' 

"I request that Brig. Gen. Joseph Wheeler, now serving under your 
command, may be informed of the receipt of this telegram. 
"Very respectfully, 

"J. C. Watson, 
"Rear- Admiral, U. S. Navy, 
"Commander-in-Chief, U. S. No wal Force on Asiatic Station. 
"Maj. Gen. E. S. Otis, U. S. V., 

"Military Governor, Manila, P. 7." 

Very respectfully, C. H. Murray, 

Major and Inspector- General, U. S. V., Secretary. 

This letter I presented to Governor Leary, and after a short 
consultation the governor very courteously accompanied me 
about the city, a place of between 6,000 and 7,000 inhabitants, 
and at 3.30 p. m., having been furnished with horses, I rode 
across the island, a distance of 7 miles, to the hamlet of Pago, 
which is situated on a small, shallow harbor on the east side 
of the island. 

A small river empties into the sea at this place. Several 
men and women were engaged in fishing when I arrived at 
the hamlet, and the rather extensive arrangements of wicker 
fences extending into the sea indicated that fishing was the 
principal occupation of the few people who lived in the vil- 
lage. Formerly the place was visited by small vessels to pro- 
cure fresh water and provisions. I returned that night, 
reaching Agana at 8 o'clock. During the entire distance 
across the island, 7 miles, we saw but few settlements, most 
of the road passing through a densely wooded country. 

The next morning at daylight I started out again, taking a 
road which runs to the northern end of the island. Part of 


the road is near the son, but the greater part is inland, with a 
dense thicket upon each side. We ascended Santa Rosa peak, 
from the top of which I had a view of probably one-third of 
the island. That night I returned to Agana, reaching that 
place between 8 and 9 o'clock. I was accompanied upon these 
two trips l>y Lieutenant Satford, Mr. Garrett, my secretary, 
and Mr. Bengoiigh, a journalist, who succeeded in securing 
some tine photographs, which he has kindly allowed me to 
n>e in illustrating this report. I had planned to start the 
next morning, Thursday, February 8, on a trip to the south- 
ern part of the island, but finding that arrangements for 
transportation could not be completed in time, I therefore 
devoted both Wednesday evening and all of Thursday to con- 
versations with the governor, with his aid, Lieutenant Safford, 
and citizens of Agana, and also in visiting places in the 
immediate neighborhood. 

The next morning at daylight Lieutenant Safford, Mr. Gar- 
rett, and myself started to make a circuit of the southern end 
of the island, visiting the towns of Asan, Agat, Umata, Me- 
rizo, and Ynarajan, reaching the latter place about 8 o'clock 
that night, our entire journey being very nearly if not all of 
30 miles. 

The next morning, Saturday, February 10, at 6.30 o'clock, 
we started across the island in a diagonal direction to the har- 
bor of San Luis D'Apra, which we reached at 1.30 p. m., the 
route taken necessitating a ride of about 15 miles. From this 
point 1 went in a native boat to the town of Sumai, where I met 
the lieutenant, or u gobernardorcillo," of the town and other 
leading people. Here I was met by the steamer's boat, which 
took me on board the Warren, when we promptly set sail for 


I can not learn that the island of Guam has ever been sur- 
veyed, but its area may be stated at about 150 square miles, 
one-half of which, it is estimated, is susceptible of cultivation. 
Nearly all of the land is still virgin soil, my information being 
that only about 1 per cent is now under cultivation. 

The population is about 9,000 souls, nearly all of whom re- 
side in the towns. Those who own ranches also have rude 
houses on them, where the family spends a portion of its time. 


The population of the towns is about as follows: 

Agana 6, 400 Agat 400 

Sumai 900 Merizo 300 

Ynarajan 550 Umata 200 

The land which is regarded as arable is very fertile, produc- 
ing cocoanuts, oranges, lemons, cacao, rice, corn, tobacco, 
sugar cane, beans, tomatoes, etc. , the cocoanut trees having 
an appearance of thrift and bearing power superior to those I 
have seen in an} T other part of the Tropics. 

Deer and wild goats are found in abundance and for years 
formed the principal meat food of the Europeans (Spaniards). 
Cows and pigs are also reared. Potatoes, maize, and rice are 
indigenous, and cocoa, coffee, and hemp are cultivated, the 
latter only to a limited extent. 

The road from Agana to the north of the island passes 
through an especially fertile country. In this section there 
is a large table-land, and where clearings have been made the 
ranches are in a good state of cultivation. All other parts of 
this table-land are covered with a very thick jungle, which 
can with difficulty be penetrated by a man on foot. The 
same statement might be made of the arable land in the coun- 
try bordering on the sea in the southern and southeastern 
part of the island. In these sections, however, there are 
more open spaces, and more attention seems to be given to 
the cultivation of cereals. 


In the wild and thickl}^ covered regions, among other trees 
and plants, grow the following: 

Pandanus. From the long, slender leaf of one species are 
made mats and hats. The leaves are stripped and hung from 
cross beams in huts to dry, as is tobacco. The mats are 
braided diagonally, as in many other Polynesian islands. The 
Chammorros have never understood the art of weaving w T ith 

Lemonia trifoliaia (Lemoncita, also called Lemonchina). 
Berries when dark red, delicious. Makes excellent marma- 
lade, having the flavor of Curacao liqueur. 

Afzelia bijuga, called "Ifil" by the natives. Wood in 
appearance something between black walnut and mahogany. 
A valuable hard wood of wide distribution, especially known 


in Guam. Known in the Philippines as the "Ipil." Wood 
hard, heavy, and durable, but brittle; good for cabinet work, 
furniture, and construction. 

Artocarpus incisa, so named from cut leaves. This is the 
Br< ad fruit. The Dugdug variety, having the leaves not deeply 
lobed, bears fruit with edible seeds, the common breadfruit 
being seedless. The wood of the Dugdug is valuable for 
cabinet work and for construction where protected from rain. 
The Dugdug and the other breadfruit trees grow to enormous 
size on this island. The trunk of the former is supported 
about its base with flat, radiating buttresses. 

Anona rrmricata (Sour sop), of the Custard apple family. 
Makes delicious jelly. In Jamaica called "Sour sop;" in 
Guam called wi Laguana." 

Plantains and bananas are abundant. The best variety of 
bananas was introduced from Manilla. 

Ficus. There are several species. The largest, a ban}^an 
with abundance of aerial roots, is called "Numby" by the 
natives. This wood is practically useless ; the small tigs grow- 
ing upon it are eaten b} 7 the birds. It is of great size, and is 
regarded with superstitious reverence by the natives. 

Jatrqpha purgcms, the physic nut. Allied to castor bean 
and crotons. Taken in any quantity is poisonous. Instances 
known of deaths of children from eating nut. It is com- 
monly used throughout the tropics for hedges. Stakes of it 
thrust into the ground readily take root and soon send forth 
leaves and branches. 

Cordyline terminalis, called u Ti" or u Ki" in Hawaii, and 
considered sacred by the old Hawaiians, who planted it about 
the graves of the dead to keep away the evil spirits. The 
belief in spirits inhabiting forests and lonely places is widely 
spread throughout the islands of the Pacific. In Samoa they 
are called "Aitu," in Guam ; * Gente del Monte," or People 
of the Woods, often described as being headless and jumping 
on the backs of people going through the woods at night, as 
did the devils upon the saints of old. They are supposed to 
frequent especially the vicinity of banyan trees and of pre- 
historic remains called "Latda." These are upright stones 
in the form of rough truncated pyramids, arranged in two 
rows, and were very probably used as supports for a roof or 
covering of some kind, or possibly they were sepulchral mon- 


uments of ancient rulers. There are many of them upon the 
island of Guam. 

Anona reticulata, "Custard apple" or "Bullock's heart.' 7 
Flower like yellow hollyhock, which belongs to same family 
(MalcavecB). Fruit is sweet and mealy: is not so good as the 
Soursop {Anona muricata). 

Hibiscus tiliact us. Its tough bark is very extensively used 
in Guam for making ropes and strings. The ropes are of 
splendid quality and do not readily rot in water. Polynesian 
name. "Hau" or "Fau." 

Discort a of several species. Yams, some with enormous 
tubers, are cultivated; others grow wild, forming impenetra- 
ble thickets, with their thorny stocks matting together the 
Lemoncita and other bushes. 

Birdsnest fern (Asplenium nidus), called "Galak'' by the 
natives. Growing upon the branches and trunks of trees, 
and associated with other species of ferns, Davallias polypo- 
diums, and other Epiphytes. 

Bilimbini (Averrhoa bilimbi). A fruit with a pentagonal 
starlike cross section and a flavor somewhat like an apple. 

Abaca, which yields Manila hemp, was introduced by Fili- 
pino prisoners, and is thriving in Guam. The natives do not 
utilize it, because they do not know how to prepare it. 

Anona squamosa, called by natives "Apis." Sugar apple, 
superior to Anona reticulata, or Custard apple. 

Canaga oderata, called Ylang-Ylang, has established itself 
in the islands, its fruits being eaten by the fruit doves and 
pigeons, who scatter the seeds. Its flowers are very fragrant 
and yield the celebrated perfume bearing its name. 

Cycas circinalis, Chamorro name, Faden; Filipino name, 
Federico. Intermediate between palm and fern. Interesting 
as forming fossil of Carboniferous period that is found in coal 
formations throughout the world. The fruit of the sycas is 
not generally used elsewhere, but it has been used by the 
Chamorros from the earliest times as a staple food. The fruit 
is soaked in water, which is then drawn oil'. This water is so 
poisonous that chickens drinking it die. The fruit is then 
dried and put aside and stored. From this a powder is ground, 
from which are baked wholesome cakes. 

Maringa, the Horse-radish tree. Used for horse-radish in 
the West Indies. 


Oranges, lemons, limes, citrons, and shaddock are abundant. 
Wild oranges and bergamot are also abundant and are used 
for washing the hair and clothing. 

Pineapples of good quality, mangoes, cashew (Anacardium 
occidental^), rice, corn, sugarcane, but not extensive for lack 
of labor: coffee good, not much cultivated, same reason. 

Farinaceous foods. — Arrowroot (Tacca pennatifida), called 
Polynesian arv-root; Mantioca, fruit of the Cycas circinalis; 
turmuric (yields curry), arnotto, ginger, capsicum (various 
kinds), red peppers; betel nuts and betel peppers are planted 
by natives, the first a product of a palm tree, a species of 
Areca, the second a vine (Piper betel), leaves of which are 
wrapped around a piece of the betel nut, and with the addi- 
tion of a little lime, chewed by the natives, 

The eggplant is cultivated in gardens. 

The following trees should also be mentioned: 

The mangrove is a tree that grows in shallow water, follow- 
ing the coral reefs out into the ocean, and thus building new 

Heritiera litoralis grows near the water's edge, has a whit- 
ish leaf. Native name u ufa." 

Casuarina equisitifolia has foliage like a horse's tail. 
Common name, "ironwood." 

Thespisia populnea. Native name, "kilulu." 

Hernandia sonora. Native name, "nonak.' 1 

The two trees last named furnish wood of a most excellent 
quality for boat building. 

The cotton tree is found in abundance, and the tree cotton 
is used for pillows, as in the Philippines, but the staple is of 
poor quality and is not used in Guam or in the Philippines 
for making cloth. Vine cotton was introduced into Guam by 
one of the old governors and is now in a few places growing 
wild, but it is not cultivated nor is it used for purposes of 


Among the birds found on the island may be mentioned the 

Asi accipitrimus (owl momo). Not common. Eats lizards. 

Halcyon cinnamanea (kingfisher). Very common. Blue, 
with tawny head. Called "sihig." Does not catch fish, but 
eats insects. 


CoUocalia fuchphaga (an edible swift). Very common. 
Called "jajaguag." These are the birds which make edible 
nests, but these nests are not eaten in Guam. 

Bhipidura uremics (pretty fan-tail flycatcher). Common in 
thickets. Called " chichirika." Its tail, which opens like a 
fan, is black, with a white margin. It has a chestnut-colored 
back, white horizontal marks on each side of its beak, and 
black throat. It has a pretty whistling note. 

Mymgray freycineti (small flycatcher). Called u ehiguah- 
gan." Common in thickets. Upper parts gray, under sur- 
face white, sometimes tinged with chestnut on the breast. 
When excited a tuft of feathers arises crest-like upon the head. 

Mysomda rvbrafra. A beautiful little scarlet honey eater,, 
with black wings and a long, slender, curved beak. Called, 
b}^ Chamorros. " eging}'/' Very common. Sucks honey 
from flowers; especialty fond of the scarlet hibiscus. 

Aphrm kittlitzi. A starling called "sali," resembling 
somewhat a thrush; the male jet black, the female with 
streaked breast. It has a note like the American robin's rain 
song. It is very fond of fruit, especially of the ylang-ylang, 
which it has pretty well spread over the island. 

Corvus kubaryi. A real crow, called "aga" by natives, 
with a cawing note similar to that of our own common spe- 
cies. Very destructive in cornfields. 

Ptilinopus roseicapiUus. A rosy-capped, green-feathered 
fruit dove, called u totot" by the natives. 

Turtur dussumieri. The Philippine turtle dove, called by 
the natives u paloma halumtano, 1 ' or dove of the forest. 

Phlegoenas xanthonura. A handsome chocolate-colored 
pigeon with white head. There are several rail-like birds in- 
habiting rice fields and swamps, including a gallinule, a coot, 
and a gra} T rail. On the shores are sacred herons, called " chu- 
ehuka," the Chinese least bittern, called "kakak," two hand- 
some curlews, called bi kalalan," golden plovers, snipe, sand- 
peckers, turnstones, and a wild duck like a mallard, Anas 
oustaleti, a species found nowhere else in the world than in 
this group of islands, called by the natives "nganga palau." 

Among the sea birds there are the pretty white turn ( Gygys 
alba), the common noddy, the white-capped noddy, the tropic 
bird, the boob}^, the man-of-war bird, and shearwaters. 



Flying fox*- arc numerous. They fly in full daylight, flap- 
ping their wings slowly like a crow. They are eaten generally 
and are one of the usual staples of food. They belong to the 
genus Pteropus, which is widely distributed over India, Ceylon, 
the Malax Archipelago, and the islands of the Pacific. Be- 
sides this and a species of smaller bat, the only mammals are 
deer, goats, cows. pigs, rats, and mice, all introduced. 


There are no snakes. 

There is a large lizard which is common and is a great pest, 
robbing nests and eating young birds and young chickens. 
It has a black skin, thickly speckled with a lemon yellow, and 
is about a meter in length. The smaller lizards are a gecko 
with padded toes, commonly seen running along the walls and 
ceilings of habitations, catching flies and other insects, and in 
the woods a beautiful little species of metallic luster, having 
several longitudinal bronze stripes down its back, and a bril- 
liant tail of cobalt blue. 


Centipedes and wasps are common, both in doors and out. 
There is also a small scorpion. The stings of none of these 
are dangerous. Spiders are common; some are very large, 
but none are dangerous. There are no tarantulas. 


There are a number of Ashes and articulates in the fresh- 
water ponds and streams. These are probably peculiar to the 
island. The beautiful bright-colored Ashes of the reefs and 
lagoons are probably of wide distribution in tropical waters. 
The land crab and land and fresh-water mollusks will proba- 
bly be of interest to the student of natural history. 


The only industry of any consequence in the island of Guam 
is the production and exportation of copra, or dried cocoanut. 

The price received by natives for copra from traders buying 
it on the island ranges from $3 to $4, Mexican, per hundred 


weight. These merchants receive about double the above price 
for the product in Japan. 

In England copra sells for $75 per ton, gold. 


The wild yam. a kind of potato, is found in great abundance. 
It is a rather coarse food, but in case of the failure of crops 
or the destruction of cocoanuts by hurricanes the yam would 
answer very well, together with fish and other meat supplies, 
to give sufficient nourishment for all the inhabitants. 


There is a very good road between the landing at Piti on to 
Agana and for 2 miles beyond along the coast to the north- 
west. The road is also very good from Apra through Agat 
and for a few miles beyond: farther on the road circles along 
the beach, but sometimes going around a spur of solid rock 
that extends to the water's edge, so that the road is covered 
with water a few inches in depth. At other points it passes 
over spurs which extend to the water's edge, thus making 
very precipitous ascents and descents, so that the road can 
hardly be called passable for vehicles of any kind. 

At Umata is a harbor where the Spanish galleons rode at 
anehor and where the sailors came for water. The commer- 
cial importance of this place was so great that for very many 
} T ears a palace for the governor was maintained and used by 
him for a residence during the times the ships from Spain 
frequented the place. The palace and also the church at 
Umata were destroyed by an earthquake in the year 1849. 
In front of the church now standing at Umata is a stone slab 
which bears the following inscription: 

Por efecto de mi grande havydo en 23 de Enero de 1849 quedo destrozado 
este Yglesya y se reedyfico en el mysmo govor el Sor Don Pablo Perez. 

(This church was destroyed the 23d day of January, 1849, by a great 
earthquake, and was rebuilt the same year, Don Pablo Perez being the 
governor at the time.) 

The palace was not rebuilt. 

To the north of Umata along the east side of the island the 
roads are only paths. 

The road across the island from Agano to Pago is fairly 
good. Many years ago a Spanish governor constructed this 


road, and halfway across the island, at the side of the road, 
there still stands a cross bearing the following inscription: 

Se compuso este camino desde Agana a Pago para parsar carretas por 
primera ves en 1853 por direccion del gobernador, Don Pablo Perez. 

(This r<»a«l from Agana to Pago, for the passage of vehicles, was con- 
structed in the year 1833, under direction of the governor, Don Pablo 
Perez. ) 

This road, however, has for many years been out of repair. 

The road from Ynarajan to Apra, diagonally across the 
island, is only a path, and where it approaches the rivers it 
has been cut down by use until it is so narrow that a large 
horse could not pass through it. The embankments forming 
the sides of these approaches, sometimes of earth and at other 
places of soft stone, are at places as high as a horse's head. 

All the roads except the one from Piti through Agana 
become very bad in the wet season, but as all the towns are 
on the coast communication by sea is always available. 


We found the towns very neat, indeed. In Agana prob- 
ably half of the houses are built of stone; the other houses 
are of nipa and bamboo, very much like the houses in Luzon. 

Agat and Samai have a very few stone houses, but in Umata, 
Merizo, and Ynarajan, the best houses are of wood and the 
rest of bamboo. 


The people are very cordial and friendly. At every town 
we entered we were met by the leading men of the place, at 
two places with United States flags flying. White flags were 
upon many of the houses, bells were rung, and other efforts 
were made by the natives to manifest regard for the Amer- 
icans. I saw a few people who I was informed were pure 
Chamorros, and they impressed me very favorably. Their 
features were regular, their forms erect, and they were in all 
respects fine physical specimens. The people seemed very 
desirous of establishing the kindest relations with the Amer- 
icans, and their conduct impressed me with the idea that they 
hoped for and expected great advantages to come to the island 
from American rule. 

There is very little money on the island. Wages are very 
low. The teacher at Umata had a nice school of little chil- 


(Iron and his pay was only 3 pesos, equal to about $1.50 gold, 
per month. I understand that the pay has been, or is about 
to be. increased to $6, Mexican, per month. 


A short distance north of Agana is the settlement of from 
75 to 100 Caroline Islanders. They preserve the native cus- 
toms and methods of dress and have quite the appearance 
of American Indians. They are industrious and peaceable. 
They were brought to the island for employment as farm 
laborers, but now they seem to all have their own houses; or 
more properly, huts, and they make a living by cultivating 
cocoanuts and small patches of ground and by catching fish. 
Their civilization is very far behind that of the other inhabi- 
tants. They have no floors to their dwellings, and present a 
very untidy appearance both personally and in their habita- 


Guam, also spelled by some voyagers and explorers Gwam, 
Guajan, and Guahan, is the most southerly of this chain of 
islands (the Marianas). They extend in a northerly and 
southerly direction between latitudes 13° 12' north and 20° 
32' north a distance of about 120 miles, and are all volcanic. 
They were discovered March 6, 1521, by Magallanes, hut he 
only saw the isles of Aguigan, Saypan, and Tinian. The 
first named, Aguigan, is uninhabited and contains 5 square 

Tinian, separated from Aguigan by a channel 5 miles in 
width, is 10 miles from north to south and 1^ miles from east 
to west. In 1876 its population was 200. Sa} r pan, also 
spelled Seypan and Saipan, is very close to Tinian. It is 14 
miles long, and like Tinian, is very fertile. It was once 
populous, but in 1876 its population, mostly centered in the 
town of Garapa, on the east coast, was about 800. 

These islands, being near the route taken by the Spanish 
ships from Acapulco to Manila and on their return voyage, 
were found to be valuable to Spain, and the group was 
finally, in 1565, taken by Legaspi in the name of the Spanish 
Crown. They were used as a stopping place to procure water 
and fresh provisions. 
24886 2 



In 1668 Maria Ana, of Austria, widow of Philip IV of 
Spain, donated a large sum of money for the education of 
the inhabitants of these islands, and the name of the Mariana 
Islands was given to them. 

The principal mission was established at Guam, and my 
information was that the fund was deposited in Manila and 
that the Government of Spain was recognized as the trustee 
of the fund, but since the overthrow of Spanish power at 
Manila in May, 1898, parties who are interested in the proper 
use of this donation have not been able to learn in whose cus- 
tody the fund was then placed. 

I respectfully recommend that inquiry be made of the 
Spanish Government with a view of having the fund restored 
to the use as directed by the donor. 

When about leaving Manila I met Col. Cristobal de Aguilar, 
an officer of the general staff of the Spanish army. He had 
been sent by the Spanish Government to gather up property 
in the islands which the treaty of Paris recognized as still 
belonging to Spain. He had recently reached Manila from 
Guam, where he had spent some time in performing his duty. 
He was very courteous and gave me much information regard- 
ing the island. 

With regard to this fund he said: 

There is at Agana a school founded by Queen Maria Ana, of Austria, for 
the education of the native children of the Mariana Archipelago. The 
school is called " Colegio de San Juan de Letran." The endowment con- 
sists of a rental of 3,000 pesos a year, produced by a capital of 80,000 pesos, 
which is here in Manila, managed by the authorities of charitable insti- 
tutions. The King of Spain is the trustee of the institution, and is repre- 
sented by the governor of the Marianas. I can not say, now that our sov- 
ereignty there is lost and the archipelago is divided between you and the 
Germans, whether the endowment will revert to the Crown of Spain, or 
Avhether it will be divided between you and the Germans, or whether it 
will remain intact. 

If it should be determined to divide the fund between the 
dependencies of the two countries, viz, the United States and 
Germany, it would no doubt be prorated according to popu- 
lation, which would continue the bulk of the income to the 
support of the college at Agana in the island of Guam. 


In 1668 the Spaniards founded the Catholic mission at Guam 
under the direction of Padre de Sanvitores. The influence of 
the Christian mission was soon extended over the other inhab- 
ited islands, and many of the natives became members of the 
Catholic Church. 


The mutual good understanding, however, did not last long 
between the missionaries and the natives, who, after some 
months had elapsed, began to revolt against them. They at- 
tacked the fort and killed several of the Spaniards, but Euro- 
pean discipline and firearms prevailed, and they were obliged 
to yield. The war of extermination and the emigration to 
other islands so reduced the population of Guam that when 
Dampier came hither, in 1688 — that is, twenty } r ears after 
the arrival of Padre Sanvitores — he found very few inhabi- 

The exercise of authority by Spanish officials was met with 
more or less resistance until 1695, when quiet was at last 
restored, but the devastation caused by the revolt and deaths 
resulting from an epidemic which prevailed in many of the 
islands made a fearful work of devastation on nearly all of 
them, and Anson states that when he visited the island of 
Tinian he found it entirely deserted by human beings, and 
only inhabited by wild hogs and cattle. 


Most extravagant legends exist as to the former density of 
the population of this and other islands. Some Spanish 
writers assert that the population of the island of Guam 
alone at one time was as much as 30,000. 

The reports of Padre Sanvitores have been quoted to sus- 
tain these large estimates. He says that during the first year 
of his labors he baptized 13,000 people and converted 20,000. 
but these statements, like the others to which allusion has 
been made, are certainly very much overrated. 

From the statistics gathered b} T Commander Sanchez y 
Zayas there were 1,060 inhabitants in 1800, which number 
increased to 5,106 in 1818; to 8,609 in 1819, and to 9,500 in 


L856. But in the last-named year smallpox broke out in the 
archipelago and in the course of that year carried off half the 
people, reducing the number to 4,556 souls. In 1865 the 
poulatioii was reckoned at 5,610, of which 4,824 were on Guam, 
335 on Rota, 18 on Tinian, and 435 on Saypan, the other 
islands being uninhabited. The present estimate of 9,000 may 
be taken as an approximately correct statement of the popu- 
lation of Guam. 

While under Spanish rule the entire group was under the 
control of the military governor, residing at Agana or Umata. 

The indigenous race called Charmorros very much resemble 
tin 4 Tagals and Visayos, but some writers contend that they 
are perhaps more indolent — a fault compensated for by good 
qualities, of which sobriety and unselfishness may claim notice. 

The Caroline islanders, who have been imported, are nat- 
urally inoffensive, and can not be said to be indolent. 


The primitive inhabitants of the archipelago have left some 
memorials of their talent behind them, like those of the mon- 
uments of Easter Island at the opposite extreme of the Pacific 
Islands. In Tinian their structures are said to be remarkable. 
They are described in Lord Anson's Voyage, where a view is 
given of one, and they are mentioned by other and later visit- 
ors. Lieutenant Mortimer says they consisted, in the state 
he saw them, of two ranges of columns, either of stone or 
composition, and of a pyramidal form, 5 feet 4 inches broad 
at the base and 14 feet high, having large semiglobes, 5 feet 
10 inches in diameter, placed on the tops, with their flat sur- 
face upward. 

These singular structures, which are not all exactly alike, 
are supposed by Freycinet to be the supports of a wooden 
ceiling, to which the roofs of the principal houses were 
affixed. But this opinion is not participated in by other 
authors, and a further examination points to the inference 
that they are sepulchral monuments of the former inhabit- 
ants. There are numerous similar remains on the other 
islands, especially at Asan, near Agana, in Guam, but here 
they are small and constructed of stone. I examined these 
structures which are located near Asan. They did not impress 


me as being at all remarkable. They were less than one- 
third of the height of the monuments described b} r Lieuten- 
ant Mortimer. 


It rains very heavily in the Marianas, and it ma} T be 
affirmed that there are no dry and rainy seasons. It rains 
nearly every day. The enormous evaporation of the Pacific 
is condensed in passing over the islands, so that, with winds 
from every quarter, rain is abundant at all periods of the 
year. The Narvaez, commanded by Commander D. E. San- 
chez, was at Guam in December, 1864, the period of the so- 
called dry season, but rain was abundant every day, and the 
natives were surprised at the weather being considered as wet. 

I was on the island three entire days and parts of two days 
at the period of the year called the dry season. During two 
of them, February 7 and February 10, there were several very 
heavy rains and numerous gentle showers, each lasting from 
fifteen to thirty minutes. One da}' — the 7th — we had only a 
few gentle showers, but no heavy rains, and during two days — 
the 6th and 9th— there was no rain at all in the parts of the 
island where we were then journeying. 

The temperature is mild and much cooler than that of the 
Philippines, but the inhabitants declared that the heat in 
August and September was almost suffocating. This must 
arise from the interruption of the northeast trade wind, which 
blows throughout the year with the exception of these two 
months, during which the effects of the southwest monsoon 
apparently reach to the Marianas. At this time there is gen- 
erally a dead calm, for the monsoon itself has not sufficient 
force to reach the archipelago. It is therefore the season of 
intense heat, rain, and storms, and frequently of terrible hur- 

Admiral Krusenstern makes the following observations on 
this subject: 

The Marianas lie in the region of the north tropic, and consequently in 
that of the northeast trade winds. But this is not the prevalent wind. 
The northeast and southwest monsoons, which are met with in the China 
Sea, on the coasts of China, and near the Philippine Islands, extend as far 
as the Marianas, and sometimes even beyond them; so that the limits 
between the monsoons and the trade winds must be found somewhere 
near this archipelago. 



Currents generally following the directions of the winds, it 
is probable that it is also the case near the Marianas. But 
Captain Goiownin met with a rapid current bearing to the 
northeast, although the wind blew from that quarter; and a 
Spanish officer affirms that a similar current generally flows 
in this part; but this phenomenon may proceed from some 
local source, and is but an exception and does not affect the 
general rule. 

From recent observations it is stated that the currents in 
the Mariana Archipelago set to the southwest at the rate of 
about three-fourths of a mile an hour during nine months of 
the year, and to the northeast during the three remaining 

Between the islands of Tinian and Aguijan a violent cur- 
rent was remarked in the Centurian, the direction of which 
was alternately south-southeast, north-northwest. This 
would prove the existence of regular tides. The flood which 
bore to the north-northwest was more rapid than the ebb, 
and lasted longer. Pasco-Thomas also remarked that dur- 
ing the Syzygies the flood was 2 feet less than at the quadra- 
ture, which is contrary to what usually occurs. The greatest 
rise of water was 8 feet; with southwest winds the flood rose 
higher than with other winds. From later observations the 
tides are found to be insignificant, the greatest rise not 
exceeding 3 feet. 

When the horizon was overcast to the southwest, north- 
west, and west with a black mass, not high, the sea began to 
break on the inner banks of Luis Harbor. It also occurred 
that, notwithstanding the continuance of the easterly winds, 
the southwest and westerly swell rendered the narrow pas- 
sages between these reefs impracticable. Freycinet states 
that during his stay storms accompanied by rain were very 
frequent, but of short duration. Thunder was never heard. 

The monsoons are felt at the Marianas; that from the west 
takes place from the middle of June to the middle of October. 
The wind, however, only blows violently for three months of 
the year. Hurricanes are comparatively rare; earthquakes, 
on the contrary, are tolerably frequent. Of the first-men- 
tioned scourge there had not been one for seven years. 


From 1850 to 1ST5 fifteen typhoons or hurricanes were 
experienced at Guam, eight of them occurring in the month of 
November, two in February, three in April, and one in June 
and September. 

According to Don Luis de Torres the months from July to 
November are the season of bad weather, storms, thunder, 
and rain: and in December, January, and February the 
weather is variable. March, April, May, and June are the 
finest; the breeze then comes from east and northeast. The 
months when the winds blow strongest are August, Septem- 
ber, October, and November; they blow at these periods 
from northwest to southwest by west, and sometimes from 
south and southeast, but in general rather between north and 
west and from north itself. 

Observations on the winds, etc., hy Lieutenant Camargo, 
IS 73: The winds in these islands follow the general law of 
the northeast trade wind. They are sometimes modified by 
the monsoons of the China Sea, on the limit of which the} r lie. 
The southwest monsoon is only light, but the northeast is 
fresher and blows longer. It lasts from the middle of Octo- 
ber to the end of June, which is the finest season. During* 
July and August it blows from the southwest; it has less 
strength, but is accompanied by strong squalls and heavy 
rains. It rains sometimes during the northeast monsoon, but 
it never lasts longer than three days. The northeast mon- 
soon is strongest during December and January; at the end 
of February it becomes feeble, turns to east and even, though 
rarely, to east-southeast; it freshens in the latter half of 
March and blows moderately. After this it dies away gradu- 
ally till July, when the southwest monsoon sets in. 

Hurricanes follow here the same laws as in the China Sea. 
Their influence is rarel}^ felt at the change of the monsoon 
from northeast to southwest, but at this period there are 
strong breezes or nortades. Hurricanes are only felt in Sep- 
tember and October, at the change of the northeast monsoon, 
when the northern islands of the archipelago are often devas- 

The currents are modified by those of the China Sea, run- 
ning to the southwest for nine months and to the northeast 
for the other three months following the monsoons, the south- 
west setting about three quarters of a mile an hour. 



Guam, Guajan, or Guahan is the southernmost and is the 
principal of the Marianas, inasmuch as it is the largest of 
them and has nearly all the population. 

It is the only one inhabited to an}^ extent, the population 
in 1873 amounting to about 7,000, but at the present time is 
fully 9,000. 

1 attach as Exhibit "A" a map of the island of Guam. It 
is shaped something like the sole of a shoe. It is 29 miles in 
length, northeast by north, and is southwest by south, and of 
irregular breadth, 10 miles where widest, narrowing in its 
center to but little more than 3 miles. Except on the north- 
east side, where there is no landing, it is bordered throughout 
the greater part of its circuit with a chain of reefs, which are 
uncovered at times. Dampier thus describes the island: 

At a distance it appears flat and uneven, but coming near it you will 
find that it stands shelving, and the east side, which is much the highest, 
is fenced with steep rocks that oppose the violence of the sea, which contin- 
ually rages against it, being driven by the constant trade wind, and on that 
side there is no anchoring, except for small boats. The west side is pretty 
low and full of small sandy bays, divided with as many rocky points. The 
soil of the island is reddish, dry, and indifferently fruitful. The fruits are 
chiefly rice, pineapples, watermelons, muskmelons, oranges, and bread 
fruit. The cocoanut tree grows by the sea on the west side in great groves, 
3 or 4 miles in length and 1 or 2 miles broad. 

The north side of the island is rather low, the small hills of 
Santa Rosa, about 650 feet high, being the only elevations. I 
was guided to the top of this elevation by a very courteous 
native, Don Gregorio Peres, who owned a well-cultivated 
ranch in its vicinity. From this peak the ocean to the north 
and the table and rolling lands to the south were in full view. 

The southern part of the island is more mountainous, 
Mount Tiniquio forming several peaks of no great elevation. 

Point Ajayan, the southeast extremity of Guam, is in lat- 
itude 13° 14' north, longitude 1U : W east. To the west of 
it is Ajayan (Ahayan) Bay, which is singularly obstructed by 
reefs. The south end of Guam is an uninterrupted sandy 
beach, fronted by reefs, having two or three small islands on 
it. Cocus Island, formerly called Daneono, and near it Bali 
Island, lie 2i miles from the southwest point of Guam. It is 
a mile long, low and barren, with some trees, among which 


is a single cocoanut tree which gives it its name. It is sur- 
rounded by reefs which, extending to the northward, form 
between it and the actual southwest point of Guam the small 
boat harbor of Merizo. The whole of this part of Guam 
should be cautiously approached. 


Shoals called Santa Rosa Shoals are said to lie to the south- 
southwest of Guam, and although their existence is ques- 
tioned by some navigators, including Admiral Krusenstern, 
I think the locality should be carefully surveyed. Those 
who report having passed over the locality were upon vessels 
of very light draft, which could pass safely over shoals or 
reefs that would be fatal to the large ships which now traverse 
these waters. 

Dampier reports seeing shoals in 1686. He says: 

IVe sailed over a rocky shoal, on which there was but 4 fathoms of water 
and an abundance of iish swimming about the rocks. 

A Spanish galleon arrived from Acapulco while Dampier 
lay at Guam, but avoiding Dampier's ships, sailed to the 
southward and struck on this shoal, knocking off her rudder, 
and not getting clear till after three days' hard labor. It must 
be a considerable distance off, for after some hours' sail they 
sighted Guam S leagues distant. On Cantova's chart it is 
made 20 leagues in extent, east-northeast and west-southwest, 
and about half as broad. Its position may be about latitude 
12° 30' north, longitude lll c 15' east. 

On Mr. Dalrymple's chart a bank, discovered in 1740 by 
Galdez, is made to be 20 miles to the southwest of Guam in 
latitude 13 c , but this has not since been found. An American 
vessel, among others, passed over the site in 1801 without 
finding the bottom. This may be the same as that mentioned 
by Dampier. but some navigators think it is probably not of 
the extent delineated by Cantova. 

In 1873 it was stated that in this, the southwest part of 
Guam, the people were much afflicted with leprosy, but this 
affliction seems now to be much less than formerly. When 
the Spaniards left there were six lepers in the leper hospital 
at Asan; all but one of these were allowed to leave, and are 
supposed to be scattered over the island. I saw one man at 


Merizo who had the appearance of a leper, and at Pago I met 
a man who was pronounced a leper. 

The people do not seem to dread the disease, and many 
contend that it is not communicated to well persons by ordi- 
nary daily association. 

The town of Merizo, about li miles southward of Umata 
Bay, at that time, 18T3, it is said, contained only 22 houses 
and L46 lazy and dirty inhabitants, the only house that was 
habitable being that of the padre. 

When I visited this place, February 9, 1900, the condition 
was very much improved. The streets, houses, and people 
all had a very neat and tidy appearance. The people came 
out to meet us before we reached the place. They had a large 
United States flag, fired guns and rang bells of welcome, and 
displayed white flags upon all their houses. They were very 
courteous, and entertained our party, consisting of Lieutenant 
Safford, Mr. Garrett, and myself with a very good dinner. 
The town now has about 300 people. 

Umata Bav, 1 miles northward of Coeus Island, is about 
one-third of a mile deep east and west, its entrance being 3 
cables wide. It is perfectly sheltered between north and 
south and by the east, but in the season of westerly winds, 
or from June to September, it is imprudent or perhaps 
impossible to remain here on account of the heavy seas 
sent in. 

The south coast of the bay is mountainous from Cape Cha- 
lan Aniti to its head, where is the river Umata or Saloupa, 
the usual watering place. The north coast of the bay, where 
the town stands, is low. The church, built at the foot of the 
mountain, fronts the eastern part of the bay. A small rivu- 
let, the Sabo, flows between the church and the governor's 
house. Behind the town the hills rise in an amphitheater, and 
are neither high nor remarkable. On the south side of the 
bay, on the contrary, Inago Mount, opposite the ruins of the 
governor's house, is remarkable; and farther west is another 
of 120 or 130 feet high, on the summit of which is the Fort 
Nuestra Senora de la Soledad. Between these two hills flows 
a rivulet of excellent water, called the Chioreto. 

Umata was destroyed by an earthquake on January 25, 
1819, as shown by stone inscriptions on the ruins of the gov- 
ernor's house and the church, and in 1875 it was found to be 


a wretched place, with only 157 inhabitants. Although the 
fortifications still look imposing on paper, they have not a 
single gun. Umata has changed very much for the better 
since 1S75. The people met me at some distance from the 
town. As I approached they tired guns, rang bells, and made 
all possible display of welcome and good feeling toward 
our Government. They insisted upon our partaking of an 
entertainment which they had prepared, and in many ways 
exhibited a desire to receive us with cordiality. The school 
children, with their bright, intelligent faces, the girls with 
neat dresses and the boys with equally neat clothing, were 
brought out in a body and presented to us. 

Here, as in other towns, everything had a clean and cheer- 
ful appearance. The town now has about 200 people. I 
regretted I could not take time to climb the hill and examine 
old "Fuerte Nuestra Senora de la Soledad.*' Its appearance 
on the hill overlooking the bay indicated that in olden times 
it was a fortress well up to the period when it was constructed 
and when it had guns and soldiers to defend it. The other 
forts were much less pretentious. 

Point Pougouene, the south entrance point of Umata Bay, 
is low, pointed, and guarded by a narrow chain of reefs, 
extending nearly a cable west of it. On the north point of 
the bay is an isolated and picturesque rock, on which point 
St. Angel is built, approached by steps cut in rock. About 
a cable north of it is another, Fort San Jose. A ruined bat- 
tery at the bottom of the bay, opposite the church, is Nuestra 
Senora del Carmen. Fort San Jose and Nuestra de la Soledad 
are plainly discernible by their whiteness. 

The anchorage is 7-J fathoms, sand and shells, with Fort St. 
Angel bearing NE. by N. i N. and Fort Nuestra Senora de 
la Soledad SE. by E. i E,, in the mouth of the bay. 

From Umata Bay the coast trends NW. by N. i N., 3 miles 
to Point Facpi, in latitude 13° 19' 50" north, longitude 114 3 
37" east, forming several sinuosities in the space, the deepest 
of which is Cetti Bay, as large as that of Umata. Point 
Facpi is remarkable for being pointed, projecting, and 
terminating in isolated rock, joined to the shore by a break- 
ing reef, uncovered at low water; thence to Point Orote, the 
west point of the peninsula of the same name, the coast pre- 
sents a bay of 6 miles opening and 2 miles in extent, in which 


are several coves and islets. The town of Agat is at the head 
of this bay, and off it there is good anchorage in northeast 
winds, but the landing, is difficult on account of the reefs. 
The land is quite fertile, and the general appearance is 


Agat is now one of the most important places next to 
Agana. In 1876 it contained only 36 native houses, a poor 
church, and a stone house for the padre. 

When I approached the town every possible expression of 
welcome to Americans was manifested. Their one little can- 
non saluted, small arms were fired, and the bells were rung. 
The padre was absent, but his commodious house was occu- 
pied by a Spaniard, who, with the leading men of the place, 
gave us a very nice luncheon. The streets, houses, and people 
all presented a very clean appearance. To the southwest of 
Agat, 2 miles distant, is Aloupan, or Alutung Island, at the 
west extremity of a reef, stretching two- thirds of a mile off 
Point Baugne. From Agat to Orote Point the distance is 34 
miles to northwest. The southwest face of the Orote Penin- 
sula is formed by a cliff. The whole of this peninsula is 
madreporic, and can not be traversed on account of the pro- 
digious number of rocks and precipices which cover it. 


From Point Orote, near which is a small island, the coast 
trends first east by south, then southeast by south, to the village 
of Apra, built on the isthmus, with a rude landing place; 
thence it turns to the east and north, thus forming a large 
indentation, nearly in the shape of a V, the opening of which 
is nearl}^ closed by a long, narrow coral island named Cabras, 
or Apapa, and numerous reefs. 

The bay is very extensive and safe, but has a great many 
banks, coral rocks, and islets, especially in the southeast part. 
The entrance is contracted by the continuation of Cabras 
Island in the form of a line of reefs, the Luminan Reefs, and 
the Pirado or Catalan Banks, which come within about one- 
third of a mile of Orote Island, leaving a deep channel, the 
usual entrance. In 1873 the entrance was stated to be only 
2 cables wide, Catalan Bank having extended to the southward. 

The distance between Apapa and Cape Orote is 2£ miles in 
a west-southwest direction, but Luminan Reefs, extending 1£ 


miles westward of Apapa Island, contract the passage to one- 
half the width, which, besides this, is made still more difficult 
by Catalan Bank, lying- precisely in the middle of the passage. 
But as there is a good passage on either side of this shoal 
half a mile in width, this entrance would be scarcely danger- 
ous if care be taken to mark its two extremities with buoys 
or flags. The depth in the passage to the northeast of the 
bank being not more than 5£ fathoms, coral bottom, Captain 
Kotzebue advises ships to pass by the channel southwest of 
the bank and to keep as close as possible to the Orote side, 
where the depth of water is sufficient for the largest ships. 

After passing beyond the bank a basin is entered, where 
anchorage may be taken if circumstances demand it; but as 
the water in it is of a very great depth and the bottom is bad, 
it would be better, if the winds and tides allow, to keep on 
the course to the inner part of the harbor, where you may 
enter at the distance of a quarter of a mile off the small island 
of Santa Cruz in 15 fathoms. 

The Warn m entered the harbor by running quite close to 
Orote Point. This entrance is narrow, but is much the best< 
and safest. The Yosemite was lying at anchor when we 
entered. The Solace came on the 7th and the Brutus on the 
9th, so that at one time four large ships were together in the 
harbor. To these was added a small trading schooner, which 
gave the place quite a business appearance. The officers of 
the Yosemite had just completed a survey of the harbor, the 
notes of which are on the way to Washington. I was not 
able to learn what was recommended by them, but from such 
examination of the harbor as I could make, aided by old 
charts, it is very clear that the harbor can be easily much 
improved. A railroad can be run across the shallow water 
which separates the island of Cabras from the mainland, then 
along the island to a point to be selected, and from that point 
a pier or mole can be run out to deep water, so as to deliver 
coal to ships. This mole or pier could be cheaply constructed 
of stone. 

At the period of Kotzebue's visit in 1817 there was a bat- 
tery of three 6-pounders on this island. The battery has long 
since been removed. In the summer of 1898, when our naval 
ship, the Charleston, commanded by Captain Glass, was ordered 
to take possession of the isle of Guam fire was opened upon 


this fort, which, of course, made no reply. The Spanish gov- 
ernor at Agana heard the firing and supposed he was honored 
by a salute from a naval ship of a friendly nation, and he 
hastened to send an officer to express his acknowledgment and 
regrets that he had no gun with which he could return the 

In the center of the basin is a rock, level with the water, on 
which stands Fort Santa Cruz, in latitude 13° 25' 45" north, 
longitude 144 c 39' 45" east. The usual anchorage is about 2 
cables to the north of this in a basin of 4 to 15 fathoms, mud, 
surrounded by coral patches 2 or 3 feet beneath the surface. 
The channels leading to it are frequently narrow, the last 
before entering being not more than 125 yards wide. The 
edges or sides of the patches are very steep, and they may be 
approached almost to touching. The best anchorage is in 22 
fathoms, coral sand, with the west end of Cabras Island bear- 
ing northeast and Fort Santa Cruz SE. % S. The tide rises 
from 3 to 4£ feet. Outside the harbor the current sets con- 
stantly to the westward. 

. Landing is very inconvenient, the shore being everywhere 
fringed with coral reefs. The best landing, if wishing to pro- 
ceed to Agana, is at Ponto Piti, opposite Cabras Island, about 
li miles from the anchorage. There is a small pier. 

From the entrance of the port to the island of Santa Cruz 
the distance is 2 miles. It would perhaps be dangerous to 
attempt to beat in and out against a contrary wind, as the 
reports say was done by Kotzebue. It would probably be 
more prudent to wait for the west wind, which springs up 
every morning at daybreak, and to tow through the narrowest 
part of the passage. A small river falls into the harbor at 
three-fourths of a mile eastward of Santa Cruz Island, and 
this is the watering place; but the boats ought to be sent at 
high tide, because at other times it would be difficult to reach 
the mouth of the river. The casks are filled at low water, and 
the boats are compelled to wait for high water to get off 
again. At Sumaye, westward of Santa Cruz Island, some 
beef, fowls, eggs, and vegetables may be obtained. 

Under Spanish rule the port dues amounted from 50 cents 
on Spanish vessels of less than 10 tons to $5.50 on vessels of 
750 tons and over. Foreign vessels paid double these rates. 

The shores of the bay of Arjra were depopulated, and the 


village of Apra. at the head of the bay of Ajayan, in the 
southern part of the island, Tarafofo. on the east coast, and 
Ilk*, near it, disappeared during- the smallpox epidemic of 
1859. There was only one physician in the whole archipelago, 
and the smallpox ran its course, and in some places left not a 
single survivor. 

Soumaye. on the west side of the beach at Apra Harbor, is 
the place chiefly resorted to by the vessels lying here. In 
1876 it had 29 decent houses. It now claims 900 people. It 
is due west of Fort Santa Cruz. 

From San Luis D'Apra the coast runs to the northeast and 
then north 1J miles, to Point Acahi-Fanahi, a perpendicular 
rock, near which lies the small island of Gapan. The reefs 
from Apra Island reach to the latter. At 1^ miles from Point 
Acahi-Fanahi is Point Adeloup, better known to the inhab- 
itants as Punta del Diablo on account of the extreme rapidity 
of the currents, which make it very difficult to be doubled. 
A sandy beach commences immediately after Point del Diablo, 
which trends to the east of north, forming the bay of Agana, 
in the middle of which is the harbor and town of Agana. 
Aloupan or Alutung Island forms the northeast extremity of 
this bay. It nearly touches Point Apurguan or Aquequan, 
and makes apparently a secure anchorage, but it is too shal- 
low except for small boats. 


Agana contains the principal part of the inhabitants of the 
Marianas, and bears the lofty title of the city of San Ignacio 
de Agana, but it is a small town of about 6,400 inhabitants. 
Some years ago the greater part of the houses were but 
poor Indian cabins, thatched with cocoanut leaves, and con- 
tained but a few stone houses for the better classes. Now 
there are many stone houses and others built of substantial 
material. The chief buildings are the governor's house, the 
arsenal, the barracks, the church, and the college. The hist 
was founded in 1673, the first establishment in the archipel- 
ago. There was a convict establishment here. The streets 
are wide, clean, and regular; a small but clear stream traverses 
the city, and it is crossed by two stone bridges, and the ap- 
pearance of the place, with its rich vegetation, is pleasant. 
Women are seen daily washing clothing in the river. The 


bank is almost, if not quite, perpendicular, and a person 
standing in the water, close to the bank, is immersed to the 
depth of 2£ to 3 feet. The women stand in this way, facing 
the bank, upon which rests their washboard, and thus wash 
working clothes for hours at a time. Trailing vines and 
grass, fresh and green, grow close to the water's edge, making 
a picturesque and interesting scene. 

A large portion of the half-breed Chamorros are copper 
colored, with extreme^ light hair, a feature which has arisen 
from the intercourse with American and English whalers. 
Prior to the opening of the Japanese ports they frequently 
came here. Their visits are now rare. 

The town is built on the seashore, but in the most incon- 
venient position, and the landings are obstructed by breaking 
reefs. There is not even anchorage before it, for the coral 
bottom renders a stay impossible, and to put out to sea at 
every indication of a storm would be attended by much haz- 
ard. The usual and better plan of calling here is for the ves- 
sel to proceed to San Luis D'Apra, for which a pilot may be 
obtained. There is a good road between Piti, the landing 
place, and Agana. 

An incident of the dangerous nature of Agana Bay was 
afforded by the wreck of the British ship Invincible, January 
5, 1856. She came in without a pilot and insisted on leaving 
next day. With some assistance, she got out, but was imme- 
diately dashed to pieces on the rocks to the west of the 
entrance. The crew were saved with difficulty. 

The coast from Apuequan Point to Point Tumun is of steep 
rocks, and all the detached points hence to the northward of 
the island are absolutely alike. At 2£ miles to the northeast 
of Point Tumun is Point de los Amantes, Tumun Bay lying 
between them. This bay appears to be filled with reefs, but 
there are several passages through it, where boats can reach 
the shore without difficulty. Near the middle of the bay and 
to the south of the village of Gnaton, a cross was erected to 
the memory of Padre Sanvitores, the martyr of the Marianas, 
who was killed on this point by a native chief while he was 
baptizing a child. 

From Point de los Amantes to Point Nigo the coast trends 
north-northeast. But little of the land has been cultivated 
and there are but few inhabitants. Southward of this latter 
point is the exposed anchorage of Falcone. 


Point Ritidian, the northwest point of Guam, is in latitude 
13 38' 4:5" north, longitude 144 c 51' 58" east. A short dis- 
tance inland the perpendicular hills form, scarcely without 
interruption, the circuit of the island on the east side. The 
coral reefs trend to the southeast from Point Ritidian to 
Point Tagua, forming the shore. From this the land trends 
cast a mile to Point Pata}^, the northeast point of the island. 

The eastern coast of the island, as far as Tarafofo Harbor, 
offers no shelter to the navigator, and ought therefore to be 
avoided during the eastern monsoon. The only openings are 
Pago Harbor, in latitude 13 - 24i". accessible only for boats, 
and Die Bay, 3 miles to the southward, and equally impor- 

Port Tarafofo, 4i miles south of Hie Bay, is the only har- 
bor, next to San Luis, which will receive vessels at all seasons 
of the year. There are no rocks in it, nor is there any dan- 
ger. It is formed of two small, deep bays, the northern of 
which, Tarafofo, is open to the east, in which direction it is 
half a mile long and about 1^ cables wide. The other, on the 
south side of the entrance, is smaller, and is called Paicpouc 
Cove. Tarafofo River, the most considerable in Guam, en- 
ters the head of the bay. Madreporic rocks, very steep, 
descend on both sides of the harbor to the water. That of 
Alahiloue, on the north side, is celebrated in the history of 
the countiy. A point at the head of the bay, on the south 
end of the sandy beach, is in latitude 13° 18' 9" north, longi- 
tude li4 c 46' 14" east. There is no village in that vicinity. 

From Tarafofo to Ulomnia or Hounlodgna Bay, li miles 
to the southwest, the land is low, with sandy beaches and 
rocky points. The bay is only fit for boats. Ynarajan Bay, 
a mile farther to the southwest, is a quarter of a mile wide in 
the opening and half a mile deep, but reefs fringing the shore 
considerably contract the anchorage. It is open from east to 
south, and during westerly winds a vessel would be perfectly 
safe in it, but the harbor would give but little protection 
against winds from the east, and especially from the south- 

Agfayan Bay, three-fourths of a mile southwest of Ynar- 
ajan, is smaller than the latter. It is said to have good 
anchorage for vessels of less than 15 feet draft. It is open 
to the east-northeast, and at its head is a small brook where 
24886 3 


boats can readily procure water. Agayan Point, the southeast 
point of Guam, has been before mentioned. 

The village of Ynarajan is on the southwest side of Ynar- 
ajan Bay. In 1875 it had 276 inhabitants, a church, and a 
house for the priest. At the head of the bay are several 
streams. Point Goal, on the north side of the entrance, is in 
latitude 13° 16' 30" north, longitude 114° 45' 18" east. 

At the last census the town had 518 people. It is now sup- 
posed to have about 550. Our party spent a night at Ynara- 
jan and was received with the most marked hospitality. We 
were met by the leading citizens as we approached, and it was 
touching to see the efforts of all the people to show respect 
to the American Government. Guns were fired, bells rung, 
and the little son of the town governor walked by nry side 
playing the accordeon. We were taken to the best house in 
the place, where we were entertained by the people. We 
were given an excellent supper and were furnished comfort- 
able beds with very clean, nice, snow-white sheets and pillow- 
cases. The next morning the population, including the women, 
called. We were given a good breakfast and six of the citi- 
zens insisted upon accompanying us to Apra, a distance of 
uearl} T , if not quite, 15 miles. It rained during most of the 
morning, at times the fall being quite heavy. In this and in 
all our travels on the island we avoided drinking water. It 
is supposed that the sickness of our marines at Agana was due 
to this cause. A plant for distilling water was therefore 
erected at that place, which seemed to remove the difficulties 
in that locality. We, however, had no inconvenience, as we 
were continually passing cocoanut groves, and the natives 
would climb a tree and drop one or more cocoanuts for each 
member of the party. The cocoanut milk we always found 
delicious and refreshing. The road or path from Ynarajan 
to Apra passed over very high hills, separated by deep gulleys 
through which run streams, one of which could properly be 
called a river. These and the wet, slippery road made travel- 
ing difficult, but the views from the high hills were grand and 
imposing. This route, moreover, was much shorter than the 
road we had passed over the day before, being only about 
half its distance. At Apra we embarked for Sumai, and from 
that place hastened to the ship. 



There is no question but that the governor and his aid, 
Lieutenant Safford, have used their best judgment in framing 
the orders which have become the laws of the island of Guam. 
I attach to my report these orders, Nos. 1 to 14: 

General Order No. 1. dated August 16, 1899, prohibited 
the disposal of liquors to any person who was not a resident 
of the island prior to August 7. 

General Order No. 2. same date, prohibited the importation 
of liquors except by special license. 

General Order No. 3, August 21, 1899, prohibited the sale 
of land without first obtaining the consent of the Government. 

General Order No. 1. August 25, 1899, limited the celebra- 
tion of religious feast days to the walls of the church, chapel, 
or private residence, and provided that the only public holi- 
days recognized would be Sundays and the holidays authorized 
by the United States statute laws and b} T the proclamations 
of the President of the United States. 

General Order No. 5 prohibits concubinage, and commands 
all persons so living together out of the bonds of wedlock to 
be married. 

General Order No. 6, October 4, 1899, prohibits the expor- 
tation of certain products of the island. 

General Order No. T. October <±, 1899, commands inhabi- 
tants who are without trade or habitual occupation to plant 
certain products and keep certain live stock. 

General Order No. 8 prohibits the importation or disposal 
of any intoxicating stimulant except by special license issued 
by the Government. 

General Order No. 9. December 6, 1899, requires that dogs 
be licensed, and states that animals, large and small, must not 
be" permitted to run loose in the roads or streets. 

General Order No. 10, January 5, 1900, abolishes the Span- 
ish system of taxation on real- estate and provides for a new 

General Order No. 11. January 19, 1900, condemns the law- 
less conduct of certain persons belonging to the station. 

General Order No. 12, January 22, 1900, provides a system 
of public education, and prohibits religious instruction in 
favor of any particular church or creed. 


General Order No. 13, January 23, 1900, requires each 
adult resident to learn to write his or her name before the 
1st day of July, 1900, unless prevented from so doing by 
physical disability. 

General Order No. 14, February 3, 1900, provides regula- 
tions regarding men attached to the command who absent 
themselves from the station. 

I also attach a 6-page pamphlet containing the rates charged 
and collected upon goods imported from foreign countries, 
and also stating " alcoholic liquors will be subject to the same 
duty as similar goods shipped from foreign ports;" and also 
that u an export duty of 3 pesos per ton will be charged upon 
all copra shipped from the island to foreign ports. Copra 
may be shipped to the United States ports free." 

I also attach the following proclamations made by Governor 

1. Proclamation of August 10, 1899, in both English and 
Chamorro languages, in which is proclaimed his occupation 
and administration of the government of the island. 

2. Proclamation of November 3, 1899, in the Chamorro 

3. Proclamation of January 1, 1900, prohibits peonage on 
the island. 

I made inquiry regarding this matter. It had been the 
custom for laboring men to borrow money and contract to 
work for the creditor until the debt was paid. I was 
informed that the purpose of the proclamation was not to 
cancel the debt but to prohibit compulsory labor for the pur- 
pose of its liquidation. 

The orders and proclamations show for themselves and 
need no comment from me. The orders with regard to 
religion are evidently considered as a hardship and are dis- 
tasteful to the majority of the people. 

It had been the custom to ring the church bell at Agana at 
4 o'clock in the morning, for daily early mass. The gov- 
ernor by verbal orders prohibited the ringing of the bell 
before 8 o'clock in the morning. This caused some dissatis- 
faction, but the governor told me that the early ringing 
disturbed the sick in the hospital. 

The tax law is light upon persons who have improved prop- 
erty, and is, I think, approved by them, but it is a very 
heavy burden upon those who own unimproved or partly 


improved property, and they feel the burden very keenly. 
Thus far there has been no collection of land tax, but it is 
quite evident that this law will cause property to pass out of 
the hands of those persons who own considerable bodies of 
unimproved land. 

I understood from Lieutenant Safford that the tax upon 
unimproved mountain or sabana land was 10 cents per hectare, 
but I find that clause 6 of General Order No. 10 fixes it at 5 
cents. I do not know whether I misunderstood him as stating 
that it was 10 cents or whether it has been increased to that 
figure since General Order No. 10 was published. 

I insert the proclamations and orders which have been pro- 
mulgated by Governor Leary in sequence according to date. 

It will be seen that the proclamation of August 10 pro- 
claims the occupation and administration of the government 
of the island. This proclamation also states — 

That, for the present preservation of law and order, the existing laws 
not conflicting with the provisions of this proclamation will continue in 
force until modified or annulled by competent authority. 

The only clause in the proclamation which could be con- 
strued as changing existing Spanish law is expressed in these 
words : 

That all political rights heretofore exercised by the clergy in dominat- 
ing the people of the island are hereby abolished, and everyone is guaran- 
teed absolute freedom of worship. 

Therefore the laws which existed in the island under Span- 
ish rule are by the terms of the proclamation the law at this 
time, except in so far as modified by the above and by the fol- 
lowing-described orders and proclamations, viz: Orders Nos. 
1 to 10, inclusive, and Nos. 12 and 13, and the order fixing 
tariffs, dated November 3, and the proclamations dated 
November 3, 1899, and January 1, 1900. 

Legal questions are constantly arising involving the rights 
of property and the libert} r of citizens. It would therefore 
aid very much in maintaining justice and insuring decisions 
based upon correct legal principles for a court to be estab- 
lished at Guam presided over b} T a man learned in the law. 

The decisions now being announced may or may not be in 
accordance with the law, and questions may arise as to the 
authority of a naval officer or a military governor to render 
decisions affecting property rights. 


Prompt Congressional action would do much to insure tran- 

The proclamations and orders issued by Governor Leary are 
as follows: 

Proclamation to the Inhabitants of Guam and to whom it may 


Pursuant to the provisions of a treaty of peace between the United 
States and Spain, concluded by their respective plenipotentiaries at Paris, 
France, the 10th day of December, 1898, the future control, disposition, 
and government of the island of Guam are ceded to the United States. 

Now, therefore, by virtue of the authority vested in me by His Excel- 
lency the President of the United States, I, Richard P. Leary, captain, 
United States Navy, and governor of the island of Guam, do hereby an- 
nounce and publicly proclaim my actual occupation and administration of 
this island, in the fulfillment of the rights of sovereignty thus acquired 
and the responsible obligations of government thus assumed. 

That you, the inhabitants of Guam, are hereby informed that in estab- 
lishing a new political power the authority of the United States w T ill be 
exerted for the security of the persons and property of the people of the 
island and for the confirmation of all your private rights and relations. 

That all political rights heretofore exercised by the clergy in dominating 
the people of the island are hereby abolished, and everyone is guaranteed 
absolute freedom of worship and full protection in the lawful pursuits of 
life, so long as that protection is deserved by actual submission to and 
compliance with the requirements of the Government of the United States. 

That all public lands and property and all rights and privileges, on shore 
or in the contiguous waters of the island, that belonged to Spain at the 
time of the surrender, now belong to the United States, and all persons are 
warned against attempting to purchase, appropriate, or dispose of any of 
the aforesaid properties, rights, or privileges without the consent of the 
United States Government. 

That, for the present preservation of law and order, the existing laws not 
conflicting with the provisions of this proclamation will continue in force 
until modified or annulled by competent authority, and all persons are 
enjoined to render prompt and cheerful obedience to the same in order 
that the blessings of good government, with the benefits of civilization and 
freedom, coupled with happiness and prosperity for the greatest good of 
the greatest number, may be the heritage of all residents of the island, as 
worthy citizens of the island of Guam, under the free flag of the United 

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of 
the United States naval station, isle of Guam, to be affixed. 

Done at Agana, isle of Guam, this tenth day of August in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety-nine, and of the indepen- 
dence of the United States of America the one hundred and twenty-fourth. 

[seal.] Richard P. Leary, 

Captain, United States Navy, Governor of Guam. 


General Order \ Government House, 

No. 1. / Agana, Guam, August 16, 1899. 

It is prohibited to sell, issue, or in any way to dispose of any intoxica- 
ting spirituous liquors in the island of Guam, or in the contiguous waters, 
reefs, or lands thereof, to any person who was not a resident of this island 
prior to August 7, 1899; and any person convicted of violating this order 
may be punished by a fine not exceeding S100 (Mexican money), or 
imprisonment not exceeding one month, or both, on approval of the gov- 
ernor; and the offender's contraband goods shall be confiscated. 

Richard P. Leary, U. S. N., 


General Order \ 
No. 2. J 
On and after September 15, 1899, the importation of whisky, brandy, 
rum, gin, aguardiente, or of any other intoxicating spirituous liquor into 
the island of Guam or its contiguous waters, reefs, or lands, is prohibited, 
except by a special license issued by the Government; and any offender 
against this order may be punished by fine or imprisonment, or both, 
upon approval by the governor; and the offender's contraband goods shall 
be confiscated. 

Richard P. Leary, 


General Order ^ Government House, 

No. 3. J Agana, Guam, August 21, 1899. 

For the protection of Government interests, and as a safeguard for the 
residents of Guam against the machinations, devices, and schemes of spec- 
ulators and adventurers, it is hereby ordered that all persons who claim 
ownership of land in this island or its dependencies are prohibited from 
selling or transferring any portion of such property without first obtain- 
ing the consent of the Government. Violation of this order may be pun- 
ished by fine or imprisonment, or both. 

Richard P. Leary, U.S. N., 


General Order 1 Government House, 

No. 4. / Agana, Guam, August 25, 1899. 

Public celebrations of feast days of the patron saints of villages, etc., 
will not be permitted. The church and its members may celebrate their 
religious feast days within the walls of the church, chapel, or private resi- 
dence, in accordance with regulations for the maintenance of the public 
peace; and, unless otherwise ordered, the only public holidays recognized 
will be Sundays and the holidays authorized by the United States statute 
laws, and by the proclamations of His Excellency, the President of the 
United States. 

Richard P. Leary, U. S. X., 



General Order | Government House, 

No. 5. J Agana, Guam, September 15, 1899. 

The existing custom of concubinage, rearing families of illegitimate 
children, is repulsive to ideas of decency, antagonistic to moral advance- 
ment, incompatible with the generally recognized customs of civilized 
society, a violation of the accepted principles of Christianity, and a most 
degrading injustice to the innocent offspring, who is not responsible for 
the condition of his unfortunate existence. 

The aforesaid custom is henceforth prohibited, and is declared to be an 
offense punishable, after November 3, 1899, by fine and imprisonment; 
and all persons in this island so living together out of the bonds of wedlock 
are commanded to procure from the Government the necessary marriage 
license, and to be married, by either the civil or church authorities, or by 
both, in order that their children may become legitimatized. 

Until November 3, 1899, the license and the civil ceremony will be free. 

Richard P. Leary, U. S. N., 


General Order ^ Government House, 

No. 6. J Agana, Guam, October 4, 1899. 

1. Until otherwise ordered, the exportation of cattle, hogs, fowl, eggs, 
rice, corn, and sweet potatoes from this island is hereby forbidden. 

2. Articles of food may be delivered to vessels only in sufficient quanti- 
ties for the subsistence of those on board during their stay in port and 
their passage to the next port of their destination. 

3. The delivery of such articles of food to ships is prohibited without a 
Government permit. 

Richard P. Leary, U. S. N., 


General Order \ Government House, 

No. 7. / Agana, Guam, October 4, 1899. 

1. Every inhabitant who is without a trade or habitual occupation, by 
means of which he is able to provide for the necessities of himself and 
his family, must plant a quantity of corn, rice, coffee, cacao, sweet potatoes, 
or other fruits and vegetables sufficient for that purpose. 

2. He must also have at least twelve hens, one cock, and one sow. 

3. The land necessary for the provisions of article 1 is understood to 
mean that which produces with good results a single article; if it be suit- 
able for two or more articles he must plant as great a quantity as possible 
consistent with the means at his disposal, and taking into consideration 
what is most necessary for the maintenance of life. 

4. Citizens who possess no land for planting may solicit from the Gov- 
ernment that which they may require for this object. 

5. When land is once granted it must be cleared, cleaned, and planted 
within such a time as the Government may deem necessary, the period 
being indicated when the grant is made, the means of the petitioner being 
taken into consideration. 


6. If the land be not cleaned at the expiration of the time fixed when 
the grant was made, the person receiving the grant will be considered 
vagrant, unless he prove that he was prevented from accomplishing the 
work by some good cause. 

7. Every part of the island may be utilized for cultivation, even though 
the sites selected be adjacent to cattle ranches. In the latter case it will 
be obligatory for the planter to inclose his garden patch with fences to pro- 
tect them from damage by cattle. 

8. Those who, by virtue of this provision, have their plantation near cat- 
tle ranches can not claim damages for injuries caused by cattle if it can be 
proved that the plantations were not properly protected by inclosures. 

9. Henceforth lands granted for pastures or plantations may be utilized 
by their possessors for stock farming or for agriculture, according to the 
nature of the soil, with the condition that they may be properly fenced in, 
so that he who wishes to start a stock farm will be obliged, before taking 
his cattle thither, to fence in the territory where they are to graze, being 
responsible for the damage that they may cause to the crops of neighbors 
for lack of fences or of proper care. 

Captains of towns and inspectors of crops will report monthly in writing 
concerning the progress of the plantations and other matters referred to in 
this order. 

Richard P. Leary, U. S. N., 


General Order") Government House, 

No. 8. / Agana, Guam, November 1, 1899. 

1. On and after November 3, 1899, it is prohibited to import or to sell, 
issue, provide, or in any way to dispose of any intoxicating stimulant 
(liquid, gelatinous, or solid) in the island of Guam or in the contiguous 
w T aters, reefs, or lands thereof, to any person residing or visiting within 
the limits of the above-stated territory, except by a special license issued 
by the Government; and any person convicted of violating this order may 
be punished for the first offense by a fine not exceeding $100 (Mexican 
money) or imprisonment not exceeding thirty days, or both, and for each 
succeeding offense the penalty may be doubled, on approval of the gov- 
ernor, and for each conviction the offender's contraband goods shall be 

2. Residents or visitors in this island are forbidden to purchase or pro- 
cure any intoxicating stimulant referred to in this order except by special 
permission of the Government, and any person who violates this order 
will be punished at the discretion of the local authorities. 

3. Drunkenness, the chief source of all crime and trouble in this island, 
must and shall cease. 

Richard P. Leary, U. S. N., 

Governoi . 

A los Habitantes de Guam: 

Ya, que plugo a la Divina Providencia de Dios omnipotente favorecernos 
durante el aiio pasado con su continuado benevolencia e ilimitado amor, 


como lo ha demostrado concediendonos los innumerables beneficios de la 
salud, dicha, paz, prosperidad, proteccion y libertad de culto religioso, 
exencion de los azotes devastadores de las epidemias y huracanes, soltura 
de la arrogante y tinlnica domination de indignos preceptores y haciendo- 
nos gozar de otros innumerables beneficios incesantes, es congruente que 
se fijo un dia como dia de accion de gracias y de oracion a nuestro Supremo 
Bienhechor por todos estos dones. 

Por tanto en armonia con la veneranda costumbre antigua del Gobierno 
de los Estados Unidos, yo, Kicardo P. Leary, capitan de la Armada de 
los Estados Unidos, gobernador de Guam, por la presente elijo y fijo el 
jueves, 30 de noviembre, 1899, como dia de accion de gracias y oracion, y 
se recomienda a todas las personas en esta isla que se abstengan dicho dia 
de todo trabajo innecesario y se reunan en sus respectivos lugares de ador- 
ation, en las horas que sean convenientes, para dar gracias y alabanzas al 
Dios todopoderoso por su misericordiosa bondad y amorosa fineza para 
con nosotros y con todos los hombres. 

En testimonio de ello firmo esta proclama y hago estamparla con el sello 
de la Estacion Naval de los Estados Unidos, en la Isla de Guam. 

Dado en Agana, isla de Guam, a tres de noviembre, del ano de Nuestro 
Sefior de mil ochocientos noventa y nueve y el ciento veinticuatro de la 
Independencia de los Estados Unidos de America. 

[seal.] Richard P. Leary, 


Tariff Rates for the Island of Guam. 

1. An export duty of 3 pesos per ton will be charged upon all copra 
shipped from this island to foreign ports. Copra may be shipped to 
United States ports free. 

2. Goods from United States territory will be admitted free, with the 
exception of alcoholic liquors, which will be subject to the same duties as 
similar goods shipped from foreign ports. 

3. The rates of duty, as herein mentioned, shall be levied, collected, and 
paid upon articles imported from foreign countries on and after November 
3, 1899. 

Absinthe $8 per gallon. 

Alcohol, amylic or fusel oil \ cent per lb. 

Animals Free. 

Anisette $8 per gallon. 

Baking powder, yeast preparations Free. 

Beads, coral 35 per cent ad val. 

Beads, glass 35 per cent ad val. 

Beef, mutton, and pork 2 cents per lb. 

Beer, ale, porter, in bottles 40 cents per gallon. 

Blankets 22 cents per lb., 

and 30 per cent 
ad val. 

Books, charts, maps Free. 


Boots and shoes 20 per cent ad vaL 

Brandy $8 per gallon. 

Brass screws 10 per cent ad val. 

Bricks, fire and other Free. 

Brooms 20 per cent ad val. 

Brushes 40 per cent ad val. 

Buckets and tubs 20 per cent ad val. 

Butter and substitutes 6 cents per lb. 

Buttons, sleeve and collar, gilt 50 per cent ad val. 

Candles 20 per cent ad vaL 

Carta Free. 

Cement, hydraulic and other kinds Free. 

Charcoal Free. 

Cheese, all kinds 6 cents per lb. 

Chocolate 50 per cent ad val. 

Chromolithographs 50 per cent ad val. 

Cigars and cigarettes 25 per cent ad val. 

Clocks 40 per cent ad val. 

Clothing, ready-made 50 per cent ad val. 

Coal Free. 

Coffee 25 per cent ad val. 

Confectionery, all sugar 25 per cent ad val. 

Copper, manufactures of 45 per cent ad val. 

Copra 20 per cent ad val. 

Cordage : — 10 per cent ad val. 

Cotton gloves 25 per cent ad val. 

handkerchiefs 25 per cent ad val. 

hosiery 15 per cent ad val. 

piece goods 10 per cent ad val. 

shirts and drawers 25 per cent ad val. 

webbing _ 25 per cent ad val. 

curtains 50 per cent ad val. 

Cutlery 25 per cent ad val. 

Disinfectants Free. 

Drugs, chemicals, and druggists' w r ares Free. 

Dyes 25 per cent ad val. 

Earthenware, common 5 per cent ad val. 

porcelain 10 per cent ad val. 

Eggs Free. 

Engravings Free. 

Essences, flavoring 40 per cent ad val. 

Extracts, meat 35 cents per lb. 

Fertilizers, guanos, etc Free. 

Firearms 50 per cent ad val. 

Fire hose Free. 

Fish, preserved 1 cent per lb. 

Fishing tackle Free. 

Flannels 33 per cent ad val. 

Flax, manufactures of 45 per cent ad val. 


Flour Free. 

Flowers, artificial 50 per cent ad val. 

Fruits, preserved 35 per cent ad val. 

Furniture, wood 10 per cent ad val. 

Gin $8 per gallon. 

Glassware 30 per cent ad val. 

Glass, window 10 per cent ad val. 

Gloves 40 P er cen t ad val. 

Glue 2£ cents per lb. 

Hams and bacon 5 cents per 11). 

Hemp cordage 2 cents per lb. 

Hose, rubber Free. 

India rubber, manufactures of 30 per cent ad val. 

Instruments, metal Free. 

Iron, corrugated Free. 

manufactures of 10 per cent ad val. 

not manufactured Free. 

screws Free. 

tinned plates H cents per lb. 

Jewelry 60 per cent ad val. 

Kerosene 20 per cent ad val. 

Knit goods, woolen 30 cents per lb. 

silk 60 per cent ad val. 

Kummel $8 per gall. 

Lace 25 per cent ad val. 

Lard 2 cents per lb. 

Lead 2£ cents per lb. 

Lead pipe 2 J cents per lb. 

Leather, manufactures of 35 per cent ad val. 

Lime Free. 

Linen goods 50 per cent ad val. 

Liqueurs, curacoa, maraschino, chartreuse, etc $8 per gall. 

Lumber Free. 

Macaroni 1£ cents per lb. 

Matches, friction 25 per cent ad val. 

Matting 6 cents per sq. yd. 

Meerschaum, pipes 60 per cent ad val. 

Milk, condensed 2 cents per lb. 

Molasses 3 cents per gall. 

Musical instruments Free. 

Nails Free. 

Newspapers, periodicals Free. 

Oilcloth 8 cents per sq. yd. 

Oil, linseed 10 cents per gall. 

olive 20 cents per gall. 

whale and seal 8 cents per gall. 

Onions 40 cents per bushel. 

Opium, liquid preparations 100 per cent ad val. 

crude and unadulterated $5 per lb. 


Paints, oil and water color Free. 

Paintings and statuary Free. 

Paper, manufactures 35 per cent ad val. 

Pepper, cayenne 2h cents per lb. 

Perfumery, alcoholic 50 per cent ad val. 

Photograph albums Free. 

Photographs Free. 

1 Ickles* 40 per cent ad val. 

Tins, metallic 35 per cent ad val. 

Pipes, cm immon 25 per cent ad val. 

Plants, growing Prohibited. 

1 '< ttatoes Free. 

Quinine, sulphate and salts Free. 

Rattan Free. 

furniturec Free. 

Ribbons - 10 percent ad val. 

Rice 10 per cent ad val. 

Rum $8 per gall. 

Saki $8 per gall. 

Salmon, dried or smoked 1 cent per lb. 

preserved 30 per cent ad val. 

Salt 8 cents per lb. 

Sauces 40 per cent ad val. 

Sausages 25 per cent ad val. 

Seeds, garden Free. 

Silk, material. 10 per cent ad val. 

Slates Free. 

Slippers 20 per cent ad val. 

Soap, castile 1| cents per lb. 

toilet, perfumed 15 per cent ad val. 

Spirits, except bay rum 84 per gall. 

Sugar 2 cents per lb. 

Tapioca 33 per cent ad val. 

Tea Free. 

Tiles Free. 

Tin plates 1£ cents per lb. 

Tobacco, not manufactured 35 cents per lb. 

Toys 10 per cent ad val. 

Umbrellas, silk or alpaca 50 per cent ad val. 

cotton or paper 25 per cent ad val. 

Vegetables, natural Free. 

preserved 40 per cent ad val. 

Watches 40 per cent ad val. 

Wheat Free. 

Whisky $8 per gall. 

Willow, manufactures of Free. 

Wines, champagne $8 per gall. 

claret, hock, sauterne, and burgundy $2 per gall. 

sherry, port, etc $4 per gall. 


Woods - Free. 

Wool or worsted yarns 33 per cent ad val. 

Woolen clothing 50 per cent ad val. 

Note. — The above-mentioned tariff rates are in Mexican coin, or its 

i Approved : 

Richard P. Leary, U. S. N., 


General Orders, \ Government House, 

No. 9. > Agana, Guam, December 6, 1899. 

1. Owners of dogs must procure a license from the Government, to be 
paid annually, beginning the 1st of January, 1900. 

2. Animals, large or small, must not be permitted to run loose in the 
roads or streets nor to encroach on the property of neighbors. 

3. Owners of animals will be held responsible for the enforcement of 
this order and for its violation will be liable to damages and the confisca- 
tion of the offending animals. 

Richard P. Leary, U. S. N., 


To the inhabitants of Guam : 

In issuing this decree the Government desires and earnestly invokes 
Divine blessing and guidance in its official action and in the daily pursuits 
and occupations of the citizens of Guam. 

By the cession of the isle of Guam to the United States of America all 
of the authority, power, and responsibilities of sovereignty were transferred 
to this Government, and in transforming and organizing the new political 
power the surest and speediest route to success, prosperity, and happiness 
for the inhabitants of this island is by benevolent assimilation to the fun- 
damental principles that constitute the basis of free American government. 

Honest labor with just compensation, dignified by faithful consideration 
of the mutual interests and welfare of all persons concerned, should insure 
prosperity to this community; whereas the existing labor-degrading sys- 
tem of human bondage and unjust, indefinite servitude or peonage per- 
mitted during the late Spanish control in this island is, in fact, a system of 
slavery, and, as such, is subversive of good government, is an obstacle to 
progressive civilization, a menace to popular liberty, and a violation of the 
sacred privileges guaranteed by the Constitution of the United States. 

Now, therefore, by virtue of the authority vested in me by his excellency 
the President of the United States, I, Richard P. Leary, captain, United 
States Navy, governor of the isle of Guam, do hereby announce and pub- 
licly proclaim absolute prohibition and total abolition of human slavery or 
peonage in the isle of Guam on and after the 22d day of February, A. D. 
1900; and all persons are hereby commanded to comply with the require- 
ments of this proclamation. 


In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and have caused the 
seal of the United States Naval Station, isle of Guam, to be affixed. 

Done at Agana, isle of Guam, this first day of January, in the year of our 
Lord one thousand nine hundred, and of the Independence of the United 
States of America the one hundred and twenty-fourth. 

[seal.] Richard P. Leary, U. S. X., 


General Order ^ Government House, 

No. 10. J Agana, Guam, January 5, 1900. 

1. The Spanish system of taxation on real estate is hereby abolished, 
and in lieu thereof a land tax shall be levied, collected, and paid to the 
Government in accordance with the following classification: 

Class I. Lands within the limits of the towns and villages, comprising 
the yards surrounding the dwelling houses, or land suitable for erecting 
dwellings within the said limits, shall be taxed at the annual rate of 4 pesos 
(Mexican) per hectare. 

Class II. Stretches of low land along the coast suitable for raising cocoa- 
nuts; low, fertile land suitable for raising cacao or coffee; low, marshy 
land susceptible of irrigation and suitable for raising rice or sugar, and 
islands lying near the coast shall be taxed at the annual rate of 50 cents 
(Mexican) per hectare. 

Class III. Virgin forest land, with rich soil, requiring clearing, and 
suitable for agricultural purposes or for vesture, shall be taxed at the 
annual rate of 30 cents (Mexican) per hectare. 

Class IV. Land on the mesa or uplands, not susceptible of irrigation nor 
within easy reach of water for stock, and suitable for tobacco and sweet 
potatoes or corn, shall be taxed at the annual rate of 15 cents (Mexican) 
per hectare. 

Class V. Marsh lands not suitable for the cultivation of rice or sugar 
shall be taxed at the annual rate of 10 cents (Mexican) per hectare. 

Class VI. Sabana land, with soil so thin as to permit nothing but sword 
grass and ironwood to grow upon it, shall be taxed at the annual rate of 5 
cents (Mexican) per hectare. 

2. The lack of facilities for transportation of cattle and produce making it 
difficult to reach the market, until otherwise ordered a reduction of 20 per 
cent will be allowed on the foregoing rates for the following-named dis- 
tricts, viz: Umata, Merizo, Ynarajan, Tarafofo, Ilic, Pago, and the districts 
of land lying to the northward and eastward of a straight line connecting 
Point Aguy and Point Lujuna. 

3. Upon the payment of a land tax a certificate of payment will be 
issued, and before registering a title to or transferring any portion of land 
the certificate of tax payment therefor must be presented for inspection as 
a proof of ownership. 

4. The provisions of this order go into effect immediately, and the tax 
will be paid semiannually, on the 30th day of June and the 31st day of 
December of each year. 

Richard P. Leary, U. S. X.. 

Govt rnor. 


General Order! Government House, 

No. 11. J Aganct, Guam, January 19, 1900. 

1. It is to be regretted that the licentious and lawless conduct of some 
of the men belonging to this station has made it necessary to issue this 
order, which is intended to be a reminder that in assuming control of 
this island the Government is pledged to fulfill its guarantee of absolute 
protection of all the rights and privileges of the residents of Guam in their 
homes and in their lawful pursuits of life. 

2. Attention is hereby called to the fact that the natives of Guam are not 
"damned dagoes" nor "niggers," but they are law-abiding, respectful 
human beings, who have been taken under the protection of the United 
States Government and who are as much entitled to courtesy, respect, and 
protection of life and liberty in their homes and in their occupations as are 
the best citizens of New York, Washington, or any other home city. 

3. The several disgraceful cases of assault, committed by persons attached 
to this station, interfering with the functions of local officials, ruthlessly 
destroying private property, viciously violating the sancity of native 
homes, etc., were worthy only of the dastardly cowards and blackguards 
who were implicated in those acts, and it is deeply regretted that the 
Government has thus far been unable to sufficiently establish the identity 
of the culprits and their abettors in order that they might be brought to 

4. For the preservation of the well-earned reputation of the American 
Navy as champions in succoring the needy, aiding the distressed, and pro- 
tecting the honor and virtue of women, it is earnestly hoped that the hon- 
orable, self-respecting portion of this command will unite their efforts in 
using all lawful means within their powder to discourage and suppress every 
known tendency on the part of others to commit lawless acts that would 
cast dishonor and shame on the service in which we have shared the hon- 
ors and trials of wars and to which we have dedicated our official lives. 

Richard P. Leary, U. S. N., 


General Order \ Government House, 

No. 12. J Agana, Guam, January 22, 1900. 

1. The system of public education in this island is hereby placed under 
the supervision and exclusive control of the Government, and all necessary 
expenses for the maintenance of the public schools will be defrayed by the 

2. Religious instruction in favor of any particular church or creed is 
prohibited and all religious training heretofore required by the late school 
customs or rules must be eliminated from the course of instruction, as the 
proper place for religious teaching is the home circle, church, chapel, or 
Sunday school. 

3. All children between the ages of 8 and 14 years must attend school, 
unless excused therefrom by competent authority for good reasons that 
interfere with their attendance. 

4. Instruction in the English language will be introduced in the public 


schools as soon as suitable teachers can be provided, and it is expected 
that the present force of native teachers will cheerfully and harmoniously 
cooperate with the teachers of English in order that the greatest benefit^ 
may be derived by both scholars and preceptors. 

Richaed P. Leary, U. S. N., 


General Order \ Government House, 

No. 13. > Agana, Guam, January 23, 1900. 

1. Every adult resident of this island must learn to write his or her own 
name before the 1st day of July, 1900, unless prevented from doing so 
by physical disability. 

2. The signature must be plain and legible, suitable for use when 
required in legal documents or commercial transactions, and must be with- 
out ornamentation, scroll, or other rubrical decoration. 

3. Any citizen may procure from the Government a suitable sample of 
his or her written name for use as a copy to be imitated in practice and 

4. All residents are recommended to utilize every available opportunity 
to learn how to read, write, and speak the English language, thereby 
improving their own mental condition as well as preparing themselves for 
assisting their children, who are required by law to attend school. 

Richaed P. Leary, U. S. N. , 


General Order \ Government House, 

No. 14. y Agana, Guam, February 3, 1900. 

1. Any person attached to this command who absents himself from his 
ship or station without authority and lives with the natives in Chamorro 
fashion, which is prohibited, thereby incurs the risk of infection by dan- 
gerous fever or disease. 

2. Until otherwise ordered, such person or persons, if apprehended, will 
be placed in quarantine a sufficient period of time to allow development 
of possible infection before being allowed to associate with others of the 

3. This quarantine is a sanitary precaution required by the local govern- 
ment, and is not to be regarded as a punishment nor to interfere with such 
official action as may be deemed advisable for the punishment of offenses 
in accordance with the United States Navy regulations. 

4. Any member of this command who shall strike, maltreat, threaten, 
or in any other manner attempt to intimidate a resident of this island f< >r 
the purpose of committing acts in violation of the law shall be punished 
at the discretion of the local authorities. 

5. Any native or other resident of this island who shall be convicted of 
harboring, protecting, or assisting a refugee from a ship or station will be 
punished at the discretion of the local authorities. 

Richard P. Leary. Y. S. N., 

24880 4 


The general conditions of the harbor of San Luis D'Apra 
are very favorable to the establishment of a coaling station 
and landing place for large vessels. 

A railroad should be run from the mainland over the nar- 
row space of water which separates it from the island of 
Cabras. The railroad should run along the island to its outer 
point. A mole or pier of stone should then be run (turning 
to the left) inward at about right angles to Cabras Island. Its 
direction would be about south-southwest. For the first 1,100 
feet the mole or pier would be built on a solid coral rock bot- 
tom, where at low tide the water is only about 3 feet deep. 
At 1,100 feet from the shore the water deepens very suddenly 
to the depth of 3^ fathoms. For the next 200 feet the depth 
very gradually increases, and at the end of this distance it 
measures 1 fathoms. The depth here almost instantly is 
increased to 15 or 16 fathoms, the bank being precipitous. 

I attach as Exhibit u B " a map of the harbor. The red line 
A B indicates the proposed railroad from the mainland to 
Cabras Island and the railroad on the island. The red line BC 
indicates the mole to the depth of 3i fathoms, and the red line 
CD the portion where the depth varies from 3i fathoms to the 
point where the depth suddenly increases to 15 fathoms. 


From the end of Cabras Island a stone breakwater should 
be built running the entire length of Luminum Reef, a dis- 
tance of about 2i miles. The first mile and a quarter would 
be on a broad reef which is bare at low water; the last mile 
and a quarter would be in water varying in depth from 3i 
to 6 fathoms, the depth for most of the distance being about 
3i fathoms. The dotted line EF indicates the first half, which 
is bare at low water; the dotted line FG indicates the portion 
which is always covered. 

March 15, 1900. 

It is proper for me to explain the length of time occupied 

in traveling from Manila to Washington. I was ordered to 

proceed on the ship Warren on January 24, but as the Warren 

was unable to procure coal in Manila, the chief quartermaster 


at Manila ordered the ship to proceed to Hongkong for that 
purpose. After coaling, the ship proceeded immediately to 
Guam, where it was necessarily delayed, for my inspection 
and examination of the island, from Tuesda} T , February 8, 
to Saturday. February 12. The ship then proceeded under 
orders of the chief quartermaster. Department of the 
Pacific, to Honolulu, where she again coaled, and also had 
her machinery repaired; the entire delay at that place being 
five days. In order to prevent the possibility of being quar- 
antined at Sun Francisco, no one connected with the ship 
went ashore, and she was moored some 6 feet from the dock. 

Notwithstanding these precautions the ship was quarantined 
in San Francisco, so that we were not permitted to go ashore 
until the night of Wednesday. March 7. 

The orders for myself and secretary to proceed to Washing- 
ton only reached me Saturday evening. I left on the first 
train Saturday evening and came directly to Washington 
without stopping. 


Joseph Wheeler, 
Brigadier- Gen eral, Un tied States Volun teers* 

KritatmA Xltbrarg 


1 . Three volumes may be taken at a time 
and only three on one share. Two unbound 
numbers of a monthly and three numbers of a 
weekly publication are counted as a volume. 

2. Books other than 7-day and 14-day ones 
may be kept out 28 days. Books cannot be 
renewed or transferred. 

3. Books overdue are subject to a fine of one 
cent a day for fourteen days, and five cents a 
day for each day thereafter. 

4. Neglect to pay the fine will debar from 
the use of the Library. 

5. No book is to be lent out of the house of 
the person to whom it is charged. 

6. Any person who shall soil (deface) or 
damage or lose a book belonging to the Library 
shall be liable to such fine as the Directors may 
impose ; or shall pay the value of the book or of 
the set, if it be a part of a set, as the Directors 
may elect. All scribbling or any marking or 
writing whatever, folding or turning down the 
leaves as well as cutting or tearing any matter 
from a book belonging to the Library, will be con- 
sidered defacement and damage. 




Gay lord Bros. 


Syracuse, N. Y. 

PAT. JAN 21, 1908 

APR 2 3 1952 

MAR I 1975 



IN *